years from now and 100 six years from now, most people choose the 100 in six years. This is in contrast with exponential discounting, in which reward valuation falls by a constant value per unit time of delay, regardless of the length of delay. Bidding on the future: Evidence against normative discounting of delayed rewards. In hyperbolic discounting, reward valuation falls rapidly with small periods of delay and then slowly for longer delay periods. Psychological Science 5 (1 3336 (2) Kirby,. Hyperbolic discounting is a cognitive bias in which an individual shows a preference for a reward that arrives sooner over a reward that arrives later. Discounting of delayed rewards: A life span comparison.

The discounted utility approach states that intertemporal choices are no different from other choices, except that some consequences are delayed and hence must be anticipated and discounted (i.e., reweighted to take into account the delay).

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The most obvious objection to hyperbolic discounting is that many or most people learn to choose consistently over time in most situations. (Assume, for the sake of simplicity, that the values of all available investments are compounded daily.) Each participant correctly understands the fundamental question being asked: "For any given value of y dollars and n days, what is the minimum amount of money,.e., the minimum. "Choice and delay of Reinforcement". There lies the hyperbolic discounter's error. Quasi-hyperbolic time preferences are also referred to as "beta-delta" preferences. Ainslies research showed that a substantial number of subjects reported that they would prefer 50 immediately rather than 100 in six months, but would NOT prefer 50 in 3 months rather than 100 in nine months, even though this was the same choice seen. Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira (2003). If this result is greater than my other choice, then I should take y dollars n days from now, because it turns out that by giving up the other choice I am essentially investing that smaller amount of money to get y dollars n days. Indeed, a variety of studies have used measures of hyperbolic discounting to find that drug-dependent individuals discount delayed consequences more than matched nondependent crazydogtshirts kuponger controls, suggesting that extreme delay discounting is a fundamental behavioral process in drug dependence. For instance: "Would you prefer a dollar today or three dollars tomorrow?" or "Would you prefer a dollar in one year or three dollars in one year and one day?" It has been claimed that a significant fraction of subjects will take the lesser amount. Humans are said to discount the value of the later reward, by a factor that increases with the length of the delay.